DİJİTAL MEDYANIN AMERİKA SEÇİMLERİNDEKİ ETKİSİ

Yazar: Sevgi Sarı

Sosyal medya platformları Amerika’daki seçimleri nasıl etkiledi? Geçmişte insanlar politik bilgileri gazete gibi basılı medyadan öğrenirken, teknolojinin gelişmesiyle beraber yeni kaynaklar da hayatımıza girmiş oldu. Örneğin başta kablolu televizyonlar, sonrasında internetle gelen sosyal medya platformları yeni kaynaklardan birkaçı. Bugün gelinen nokta ise Twitter, Facebook ve Medium gibi platformların seçim süreci başta olmak üzere politik bilgiler için ilk ve hatta en sık başvurulan kaynak olması. Dijital platformların seçimler için vazgeçilmez bir kaynak olması, adayların da bu platformlara yönelik politikalarını etkilemiştir. Örneğin Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton ve Donald Trump gibi siyasi isimler güçlü sosyal medya politikalarıyla seçmenlere yönelik etkili kampanyalar yürütmüşlerdir. Şüphesiz Obama ve Trump’ın seçim zaferleri, seçmenler üzerinde bu politikaların etkili olduğuna dair en başarılı örneklerdendir. Diğer taraftan seçmenlere yönelik yürütülen bu kampanyalar bazı skandalları da beraberinde getirdi. Bunlardan en popüleri Internet Research Agency ve Cambridge Analytica idi. Birçok haber Trump’ın Facebook üzerinden yürüttüğü kampanya sayesinde seçmenleri manipüle ederek ABD’nin başkanı olduğunu yazdı. Cambridge Analytica skandalı, ABD’de seçimlerin adil olduğuna dair şüphe ve endişe yaratmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, hükümet ve sosyal medya platformları 2020 seçimleri için ciddi önlemler almışlardır.

Bu yazıda sosyal medya platformlarının ve internet sitelerinin seçmenlere ulaşmak için nasıl kullanıldığı, dijital medyanın seçmenlerin birbiriyle iletişimine aracılık etme rolü ve dijital demokraside yeni medyanın etkisinden bahsettim.

THE NEW ERA OF POLITICS AND POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS WITH SOCIAL MEDIA IN UNITED STATES

The habits of the earning of political information, news and developments have changed incrementally over decades. People used to learn about new improvements via television in 1960s and 1970s. Television made broader diffusion of the knowledge accessible to wide population of United States of America. As it doesn’t require glorious literacy skills necessitated by newspapers in one sense, since there were more or less 3 prevalent channels at certain times which has content available in certain time slots. Thus, television gave equal opportunity every broadcast channel. After cable Tv invented, the diversity of programs and channels increased a lot and it gave people to prefer different kind of contents to watch. People started to hear and watch more about political information, if anything, so it increased political involvement such as turnout and political knowledge. Even if diversity is multiplied, the quality of the contents remained the same.

With digital media, mediation started to increase regarding politics thanks to a greater number of formats such as disseminating news and events via Twitter, posting different contents on Facebook, writing about politics in blogs and reaching online newspaper websites.

Political parties in a democratic system mostly feel liable to canalize and partake in open political conversation. With changing of the traditional structure of mass media which also means and directly relevant to the development of web technologies including social media.

 Social media is an outlet in which composes different applications or website and allows its users to share content and comment on a content. Social media networks are comprised of various online outlets. These instruments are typically made to encourage correspondence, fabricate associations, and help individuals share what is important most to them including convictions, thoughts, sentiments, ventures, and that’s only the tip of the iceberg. By far most of social media platforms share key characteristics for all intents and purpose and it is these features that absolutely characterize what social media is: 

 You can make a profile for yourself or your organization or association. 

 You can be noticed by updates of your account or other users’ ones.

 You have an organization of individuals, organizations, or associations associated with you. 

 You are conveyed content by means of a calculation that furnishes you with a flood of data framework which measures you will discover important.

You have basic approaches to impart and partake in the network.

With all these characteristics of social media and via their own personalized account everybody who use social media can create content on their own. In this way, by replying political forums and reading or writing political blogs people started to express their consideration and find individuals politically like-minded.

In this paper, I am going to analyse 3 different aspects regarding of politics of social media, these are; the use of websites to reach voters, the role of the internet as a mediation for political communication during political campaigns and visions of digital democracy and the role of new media.

In the light of constitutional law and human rights, freedom of speech and especially freedom of political expression is so important and is protected. Be that as it may, political correspondence during political race periods has for some time been subject to different types of guideline. Most part conditions of the Council of Europe have rules on paid political publicizing, for example, limits on constituent mission spending, on the measure of broadcast appointment that can be bought for crusading, on commitments of people, enterprises or unfamiliar substances, and so forth various part states keep up prohibitions on paid political publicizing on TV and radio, which are generally adjusted by free broadcast appointment in which ideological groups can introduce their projects. The point of these principles is to keep up the honesty, decency and authenticity of the political decision cycle and its result, and guard against the likelihood that private interests and amazing minorities can handle results through arrangement among media and lawmakers, or the purchasing of impact over popular assessment. These principles are contained in political decision law, broadcasting law and self-administrative codes and are likewise reflected in global basic freedoms norms that necessitate that rules are essential and proportionate. 

 The websites which reach to voters has given individuals phenomenal admittance to data about races and empowered them to express their conclusions, connect with people who follow them and get effectively engaged with discretionary missions.   

The web is likewise a valuable stage for ideological groups to introduce their plan to the electorate and to prepare a bigger help base for their causes. The expense of speaking with electors can be generously lower through this medium than by means of transmission media, given the accessibility of free blog and video sharing stages and online media. Little ideological groups with restricted assets and autonomous applicants specifically can profit by this sort of correspondence. 

 In any case, the adjustments in the creation and utilization of political race related substance additionally raise a number of concerns. As of late, a developing number of analysts have brought up issues about the potential effect of the web, particularly online media, on appointive decisions. In the previously mentioned survey social media stages have been found, particularly among the youthful populace, to have an extensive effect. 34% of 18-34s felt that data they read via online media would impact their vote. Everybody communicated less trust in web-based media; just one out of five Britanns (19%) was found to have more trust in political data accessible via web-based media stages than that they read in papers. 

 This plausibility study sets out the standards and foundations of mission guideline and talks about the ramifications of various manners by which the web has changed political crusading, be it concerning paid publicizing, the utilization of web-based media by the legislators to introduce and talk about their projects, the debilitated gatekeeping limits of media and specialists as to discretionary messages, the assortment and handling of the citizens’ very own information for political race purposes, and so on.

 The point of the examination is to signal the potential issues which have arisen or have been disturbed with the move of political purposeful publicity and particularly political races onto the web. Since existing systems for crusade money control and straightforwardness inside the part conditions of the Council of Europe are very fluctuated, for instance concerning political publicizing and mission account, ends made won’t apply to all part states similarly. A few norms set will be at the degree of standards, and others concrete rules and establishments.

Besides the websites tools to reach voters via internet, Twitter and Facebook are the most used outlets for the political campaigns by politicians. Since the candidates exactly know that as Dr Martin Moore, Director of the Media Standards Trust said: “There have been claims for Britain’s first ‘social media election’ for some time now, but what this evidence suggests is that platforms such as Facebook and Twitter are becoming part of the natural fabric for the group both hardest to engage in politics and whose political opinions are least set-in stone – young people. Modern users of social media are sophisticated enough to recognise its disadvantages – and don’t seem to be dropping other news sources entirely – but its potential to widen access to politics could be key in halting the decline in political engagement among younger generations.”

Kaynak: The Kingdom

Let’s look at Barack Obama’s campaign strategy during the 2008 presidential elections. Obama and his team used the web in various manners during 2008 election campaign. At the beginning, they made sufficient utilization of web-based media to additional their motivation both through Facebook and the mission site my.barackobama.com (MyBO). These devices helped expand customary mission strategies: particularized data on allies improved preparation, particularly during councils; MyBO provided devices permitting volunteers to settle on decisions for the campaign’s sake from home; and MyBO and Facebook focused apparatuses likewise assisted volunteers with getting sorted out them own gathering pledges occasions, interfacing with companions they had not seen for years. The Obama campaigns forceful activity in the online media space happened in leave review information. 

 As per PEW, which is a nonpartisan organisation who conduct research, public opinion polling and content analysis by using data to inform people, 25% of Obama allies utilized interpersonal organizations for political aims as opposed to 16% of McCain proponents.

For some applicants, computerized crusade procedures appear to depend on four essential methodologies: competitor sites, up-and-comer social channels, email list building and online media promotions. These all bode well and can frame a strong computerized base; however, they may not separate you from the pack. 

With an advanced grassroots mission, competitors can enhance their messages by utilizing influencers who more youthful citizens definitely know and trust on explicit issues. I’m not discussing VIPs, I’m discussing micro influencers with an after because of their aptitude on issues, for example, migration, medical services or pay disparity. 

Organizations have thought about the estimation of micro influencers for quite a long time. Organizations can utilize them to build their change rates — the quantity of individuals who really purchase their items. 

 Prevailing upon citizens is the same. In races, the transformation rate just becomes getting electors to turn up at the surveys for your competitor. 

To dispatch a computerized grassroots mission, a mission would initially need to recognize influencers who share the competitor’s perspectives. Zero in on individuals with explicit ability or a reason who have assembled a network of devotees on the web. 

There are incredible influencer revelation and effort stages out there that missions can use to recognize influencers. When picking influencers, everything boils down to knowing your intended interest group. To start with, make a group of people persona, a semifictional prime example that speaks to the critical qualities of an enormous fragment of your intended interest group. In light of that, you can begin searching for influencers. The best influencer for you is somebody whose social followership best matches your crowd persona.

After they discovered their optimal influencers, consider welcoming them on the mission transport alongside the customary media and offering them occasions to meet the applicant. This will permit them to share their unfiltered content with their networks. Keep in mind: An influencer’s supporters for the most part trust them, so an up-and-comer underwriting conveys weight. It resembles getting a café proposal from a companion instead of perusing an audit from an outsider on the web. 

Missions can likewise welcome these influencers to their conventions and let them cover their occasions, through Instagram Stories or Facebook Live, and let their networks vote on mission objectives to perceive what resounds and where to adjust.

Through these important features of the new media is that ‘new media change not just those who are active and interested in politics, but can also shift attention and the agenda to new political forces, including political ‘outsiders’, who can use new media to circumvent traditional ones.’  (Schroeder, 2018)

Another very impressive characteristics of the new media is about how digital media changes the agenda, agenda setting basically means that topics are determined by the media and the media is not something that make people to think but specifies what target people to think about. 

Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram make better approaches to showcase political crusades and new channels for applicants and citizens to collaborate. We can measure the size of web-based media’s job in the 2016 official political decision from information announced by the Pew Research Center (July 18, 2016). As per the review, 44%of the U.S. grown-ups got data about the 2016 official political race from online media. That is more than the rate referred to for either neighbourhood or public print papers or for applicant sites and messages joined. Also, 24% got news and data from web-based media posts by Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Trump had just about 10 million 

 Twitter adherents to Clinton’s 7,000,000, and his 9,000,000 Facebook adherents were about twofold her number. In May of 2016, the Pew study discovered that political candidates arrived at the midpoint of five to seven posts for every day on Facebook what’s more, 11 to 12 every day on their Twitter accounts.

2016 election campaigns certainly indicated us the role and impact of social media. Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders used the digital media so effectively during their electoral campaign in 2016. 

One normal practice in web-based media is to add connects to outside site pages, news stories or other online material while making a post. With regards to a political mission, a connection inside an online media post can help a peruser discover more data, become more engaged with the battle or loan validity to the post’s substance. During the time span investigated, the utilization of connections by Trump, Clinton and Sanders changed, both starting with one applicant then onto the next and across the two interpersonal organizations contemplated. 

According to the study that Pew Research Center conducted, inside their Facebook posts, the applicants included outer connections at comparative rates: 30% of Clinton’s posts on Facebook included connections, as did 32% of Sanders’ posts and 30% of Trump’s posts.9 What they connected to, be that as it may, shifted an incredible arrangement. Like Obama and Romney in 2012, Clinton’s and Sanders’ Facebook channels regularly connected to their own official mission sites or online media accounts. Completely 80% of Clinton’s Facebook presents with joins went on mission pages, as did 58% of Sanders’ Facebook posts. These incorporate connects to crusade occasions, recordings (both recorded and streaming) and gift pages. 

Connections to news sources were significantly more uncommon for these two Democratic applicants. Just 15% of the posts with joins in Clinton’s Facebook channel guided per users to news stories. In correlation, news media joins from associations, for example, Politico, Univision and medium.com involved a third (33%) of posts with joins in the Sanders channel.

Trump’s Facebook posts, then again, more often guided per users toward news media. Completely 78% of his posts with joins guided adherents to articles from huge public or global media associations, for example, Fox News and the Daily Mail, just as more specialty destinations like the traditionalist magazine The American Spectator. Trump never connected to his mission site in a Facebook post. This is by all accounts in accordance with Trump’s overall procedure of zeroing in on media appearances and rallies during this period, instead of volunteers or gifts. 

On Twitter (where Clinton and Sanders incorporate connections about 33% of the time and Trump simply a 10th), a comparative example arises. 

 Sanders frequently connected to his own mission sites (57%, everything being equal) trailed by news media (37%), generally a similar rate as he did on Facebook. Clinton comparatively connected to her own mission 60% of the time on Facebook and the news media a fourth of the time. What’s more, Trump again connected most as often as possible to news locales (48% of posts with joins), albeit, rather than Facebook, he connected to his mission site on Twitter in 20% of all connections he posted. 

profile of Trump composed of 0s and 1s
Kaynak: The NEW YORKER

Secondly, internet has an important role as a mediation for political communication during political campaigns.  In another words, ‘social media news attention and internal political efficacy play a bigger role in connecting news attention and political participation than traditional news attention, external political efficacy, and political talk.’  (Park, 2019)

Social media are very not the same as traditional media in that they have special affordances that can encourage an assortment of political practices. For instance, online media can fill in as a significant foundation of social and political data assessment articulation and association with people, gatherings, and foundations that have political impact. In this way, online media’s political effect should be not the same as that of conventional news media.

Political cooperation has been characterized as action that has the goal of affecting the choice of legislative faculty or governmental activity. This exemplary definition depends on the supposition that residents straightforwardly participate in the political dynamic. A singular individual is frequently weak to make an effect on society. However, when individuals band together and practice an aggregate activity toward a shared objective, considerable changes become conceivable. People feel more engaged when they attempt to impact people with great influence through different aggregate activities than when they act alone. Generally aggregate interest happens at an enormous scope past expressive practices.

‘‘News is what people talk about, and news makes people talk” (Anderson, Dardenne, & Killenberg, 1994, p. 37) News use likewise invigorates people’s insight that they are insightful of political issues, which supports inside effective inclination about governmental issues. Much the same as conventional media, online media can give people data on appropriate political issues that can incite further political talk. News use via web-based media can manage the cost of more prominent “expressive potential” among clients since they can undoubtedly remark on, as, or share news posts they get for others to see. Given different affordances of web-based media, for example, availability, accommodation, and low costs, online media use for news ought to likewise prompt people’s expanded capability about their political activity.

Thirdly, to mention about visions of digital democracy and the role of new media; social media use for political data could help the expansion of outside viability since they empower residents to associate effectively with public authorities, thus considering them responsible. In any case online media are impressively unique in relation to conventional media. Web-based media content frequently parodies conventional media tones, brings up social and political irregularities, and accentuates issues and occasions that are generally disregarded by the foundation.

Internet gives a stage to some types of political action that are harder to acknowledge in the disconnected world: extra occasions to discover political data and to make political cooperation. Recognizable models are sending and getting email to and from the government and up-and-comers, utilizing email to help or restrict an applicant, partaking in online surveys and taking an interest in online conversations. 

Electronic surveys, electronic referenda and electronic voting would bring a period of direct popular government taking after resident interest like the Athenian sort with present day implies. This viewpoint is principally protected by the defenders of plebiscitary and libertarian majority rule government. Notwithstanding, experience so far demonstrates that enormous scope internet movement in online gatherings, surveys, networks and weight bunches can thrive with no impact on dynamic in authentic governmental issues.

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Kaynak: Daily Times

The Internet Research Agency and Its Effect on 2016 Presidential Elections

With the development of internet technologies and social media usage in election campaigns we testified some events which used personal data via social media accounts of the voters. The Internet Research Agency and the Cambridge Analytica are two institutions that try to affect constituents’ view through the Facebook and other social media outlets.

The Internet Research Agency is a Russian organization occupied with online impact procedure for the benefit of Russian business and political interests. It is connected to Russian oligarch Yevgeny Prigozhin and situated in Saint Petersburg, Russia. 

 The office has utilized fake accounts enrolled on significant interpersonal interaction locales, conversation sheets, online paper destinations, and video facilitating administrations to advance the Kremlin’s advantages in homegrown and international strategy including Ukraine and the Middle East just as endeavouring to impact the 2016 United States official political race. Early IRA representatives were recruited to compose remarks and blog entries, just as to post recordings, images, and reports under invented names that upheld the current Russian government and censured its resistance. Records vary concerning how IRA workers were coordinated to treat the U.S. official candidates. As per one previous worker met by the RBC, the vast majority of their assignments were not pointed toward supporting a specific candidate, but instead at misusing the disruptiveness encompassing “intense social issues, for example, firearm rights, migration, and race relations. Misusing these divisions oftentimes corresponded with Trump’s manner of speaking, yet RBC’s sources note that these were seen as snapshots of “connection” as opposed to of “direct help.” “There was no undertaking of ‘supporting Trump,'” one IRA representative demanded. 

In February 2016, a prosecution says, the laborers at the Internet Research Agency were told to “utilize any occasion to censure Hillary and the rest (aside from Sanders and Trump—we uphold them.)” The arraignment additionally bolsters the since quite a while ago held doubt that the organization endeavoured to plant hatred on the left just as the right, however its help for the Trump’s election campaign was essentially more noteworthy.

Facebook, Twitter, and Google all admitted to Congress that the Internet Research Agency had facilitated a large number of fake accounts on their foundation, where they had arrived at a great many individuals through paid promotions and posts via web-based media. Facebook alone assessed that approximately 126 million individuals probably observed substance or followed accounts made by the IRA between January 2015 and August 2017. Twitter uncovered in January that it has discovered 3,814 records accepted to be made by the IRA, and it sent messages to 677,775 clients who had unintentionally followed or connected with content made by the IRA. Twitter likewise noticed that Russian bots retweeted Trump just about multiple times in the last a long time of the 2016 political race—multiple times more than they retweeted Hillary Clinton. Moreover, Twitter found that 50,000 Russian-connected records retweeted Wikileaks just about multiple times between Sept. 1 and Nov. 15, 2016. The Twitter accounts made by the Internet Research Agency frequently claimed to be clever Americans or American promotion associations and shared news by American sources.

The report which was conducted by University of Oxford’s Computational Propoganda Project and Graphika which is a social network analysis firm states that: “Social media have gone from being the natural infrastructure for sharing collective grievances and co-ordinating civic engagement, to being a computational tool for social control, manipulated by canny political consultants and available to politicians in democracies and dictatorships alike,” 

Facebook Cambridge Analytica Skandalıyla gündeme geldi.

The Facebook- Cambridge Analytica Scandal in 2016 Presidential Elections

Cambridge Analytica is a political-information examination firm that dealt with the 2016 Trump campaign. Its affirmed advantage is having enough information focuses on each American to assemble broad character profiles, which its customers can use for focused advertisements. At issue is the way Cambridge Analytica took a few to get back some composure of a particularly huge dataset of the American electorate. The firm is being blamed for utilizing and subtly keeping information on 50 million Facebook clients without their consent. That information was gained through ‘thisisyourdigitallife’ an outsider application made by a scientist at Cambridge University’s Psychometrics Center. Almost, 300.000 individuals downloaded it, along these lines giving the specialist and Cambridge Analytica-admittance to not simply their own information, and their friends’ also. The Trump 2016 election campaign depended vigorously on advanced focusing on, which may have used Cambridge Analytica’s Facebook information. 

The Cambridge Analytica outrage illuminated how the Facebook information of millions was reaped and transformed into an informing instrument. However, presently, a report from the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) puts the focus on the connection between politicians and data expertise. Indeed, even limited data can be utilized shockingly, according to scholars.For instance, knowing somebody’s name can prompt making predictions about their pay, number of kids and nationality – which is then used to tailor a political directive for them. It has done that for so many electors, the greater part of whom will be ignorant of precisely how their data is being utilized. Ideological groups can genuinely hold individual information on people to help them crusade all the more successfully. In any case, complex information investigation programming would now be able to join data about people from numerous sources to discover more about their democratic qualities and interests – something a few people may discover upsetting.

They gather information themselves or, sometimes, get it from different organizations, for example, a credit card firm. 

 They at that point sell it on to publicists – or, for this situation, to ideological groups.

Having information on an individual implies that political messages can be customized, and keeping in mind that this is a decent method to pound home explicit messages, it very well may be contended that it is likewise giving individuals just piece of the anecdote about some random policy driven issue. Having information on an individual implies that political messages can be customized, and keeping in mind that this is a decent method to pound home explicit messages, it very well may be contended that it is likewise giving individuals just piece of the anecdote about some random policy driven issue. As per PI (Privacy International) it assists with making “reverberation chambers, energize casts a ballot and limit political discussion”. “In the event that somebody has the given name Mohammed, for instance, it very well might be construed that they are from a migrant family thus messages about migration can be customized,” says Jim Killock from the ORG (Open Rights Group) “Or on the other hand if there are two individuals with a similar last name living at a location, it very well may be speculated that they might be married and informing message fitted to that.”

One of the approaches to try not to get controlled by others consciously or unconciously by means of various ways is permit electors the capacity to reject the sharing of their information between an ideological group and an outsider, for example, an information intermediary. 

“The information agent industry is so unpredictable and keeping in mind that the GDPR gave individuals more rights over their information, how are you expected to practice those rights if don’t have a clue about an organization is gathering your information and profiling you?”

Hillary Clinton responds to Donald Trump's Twitter attack with tweet that  goes viral - ABC7 New York
Kaynak: EYEWITNESS NEWS

How Hillary Clinton used social media during 2016 elections?

In 2016 Trump tweeted “Obama just endorsed Crooked Hillary. He wants four more years of Obama — but nobody else does!” Hillary tweeted back ‘Delete your account’ as response to Trump’s tweet. Contrasted with the Trump’s social media campaign, which has a presence on Facebook and Instagram however mostly depends essentially on Twitter to associate with citizens and shape the applicant’s message, Clinton has had accomplishment on less regular digital media outlets, including Quora and Pinterest.  

Lowenstein deals with the mission’s day by day digital activities and a group of people more than 100, which incorporates staff members who create substance and methodology for web-based media, video, email outreach, crowd advancement, advanced getting sorted out, promoting and The Briefing blog. Lowenstein was already the vice president of computerized at Emily’s List, a non-profit association that attempts to choose Democratic ladies running for congress.

At the point when substance isn’t straightforwardly composed or allocated by Clinton, Lowenstein’s group channels her character by concentrating on her followers’ values, sense of and their common communication style, which is immediate and forthright. However, the mission has additionally figured out how to weave in acculturating looks at Clinton. For example, an Instagram post indicated Clinton bowing her head in supplication with pastors at the new gathering of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. A YouTube video from the essential season shows Clinton encouraging a crying young lady who is worried about the possibility that that her folks will be extradited. It’s since been seen multiple times across YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, as per the mission.

Hillary Rodham Clinton has also her website; https://www.hillaryclinton.com/ through this website everybody can see her policies and read about her life. During the 2016 election campaign Hillary Clinton usually referred to her website in her tweets and posts which is shared in other social media channels.

BIBLIOGRAPHIA

BRENNAN, G. (2018). HOW DIGITAL MEDIA RESHAPES POLITICAL ACTIVISM: MASS PROTESTS, SOCIAL MOBILIZATION, AND CIVIC ENGAGEMENT. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 10(2), 76-81. 

LĂZĂROIU, G. (2018). PARTICIPATION ENVIRONMENTS, COLLECTIVE IDENTITIES, AND ONLINE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR: THE ROLE OF MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES FOR SOCIAL PROTEST CAMPAIGNS. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 10(2), 58-63

Park, C. (2019). The mediating role of political talk and political efficacy in the effects of news use on expressive and collective participation. Communication and the Public, 4(1), 35-52.

Rogers, R., & Niederer, S. (Eds.). (2020). The Politics of Social Media Manipulation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Schroeder, R. (2018). Media systems, digital media and politics. In Social Theory after the Internet: Media, Technology, and Globalization (pp. 28-59). London: UCL Press.

https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2019/05/why-social-media-ruining-political-discourse/589108/

https://www.npr.org/2016/11/08/500686320/did-social-media-ruin-election-2016

https://www.e-ir.info

https://slate.com/technology/2018/02/what-we-know-about-the-internet-research-agency-and-how-it-meddled-in-the-2016-election.html

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